The drum sound you’ve always wanted! (Or how to get your drum mics in phase):

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Drum mic phasing is one of the lost arts of sound recording.  If all those mics on the kit are feeding ambient spill off the kit randomly out of phase, the consequent cancellation effects give rise to that characteristic ’sucked out’ demo drum sound.

Here’s how to avoid that and create vastly improved drum sounds:

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1)   Pull up one overhead mic (doesn’t matter which) – this is the reference.  Get it levelled with the drummer playing round the kit and mute it.

2)   Pull up another mic (any) – get the drummer to play floor tom.  Set the level so that the floor tom volume is the same as the OH in 1).

3)   Unmute the OH and mono the mix. Keep the drummer playing floor tom.  You are now listening to the OH mic and the new mic with similar levels of floor tom in a mono mix.

4)   Switch the phase on the ‘new’ mic (not the OH) one way round there will be loads more bass content in the signal.  This is ‘in phase’ and correct.  Leave the new mic this way.

5)   Move on to the next mic comparing to the same overhead.

6)   Carry on like this til you get to the floor tom mic, when you will need to get the drummer to hit the kick drum instead.

7)   Having got the phasing right – return to the start and get the levels and eq right for all the mics.

8)   You are ready to roll tape!

The Author

Howard Turner has over 30 years experience in the studio business, and for the last 2 decades, his Studio Wizard Organisation have been at the forefront of the development of effective & affordable designs and solutions for studios.  Further information:  07092 123666 web: www.studiowizard.com

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The Mixing Desk – what you need to know to fly one…

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Mixers – Knob city or simple switches?  Howard Turner from Studio Wizard gets on the Busses…

Once upon a time everything was recorded in mono.  With one mic.  How simple was that?  A mic, a mic amp, a recorder.  Then someone in the 30’s decided that it sounded better if he also laid some close mics on the soloists to bring the solos up in the recording.  That meant some signals had to be mixed together, and the mixer as we know it was born.

History Repeating.

The earliest mixers had just two purposes;  1) They allowed you to introduce more than one input, and send them out to more than one destination.  So they had to ‘route’ signals.  2) They also allowed the relative levels of these multiple signals to be adjusted with ‘faders’ so that the output wasn’t too loud or quiet.

Oh, then someone decided that adjusting the frequency response of the signal might be a good idea and equalisation or ‘EQ’ was invented – although even in the days of the Beatles the EQ was a switch marked ‘pop’ or ‘classical’ – in classical mode the signal went straight through, in pop mode all frequencies above 5k were cut…

3 track Multitrack tape came along in the early 60’s and brought with it the concept of recording some signals whilst listening back to others, and the mixer started to look slightly like the ones we still see today, with sections dedicated to the functions it has to perform; inputs, groups and monitoring, each with identical controls for all the different in’s and out’s

The path is clear.

So there are two sound sources in a studio: the current live performance, and the stuff playing back from the recorder that has already been done.  There are also two destinations: the recorder to record the current performance as a ‘overdub’ on another track, and the main mix output, where engineer and performer get to listen to a rough approximation of the final result (the ‘monitor’ mix).

So the mixer is divided up thus:

The Input Section, where the inputs come in.

The Monitor section, where the pre-recorded parts are listened to.

The (sub)Group section, where signals are adjusted for level before they go off to the recorder.

The Master section, where the final mix output controls are lumped together with all the other bits of the mixer that haven’t got a home, like Control Room volume, Aux outputs etc…

Lets look at a simple desk layout –this desk has 3 inputs, 2 sends to tape, 2 tape monitors and a single mono output.

new diag 1

Diag 1.  A basic mixer. A format that carries on to this day and is still extensively modelled in software and digital products.

The long wires that the inputs and outputs feed their signal onto, or take their signal off of, are the ‘Busses’.  A name whose origins date back to the heavy metal ‘buss bars’ that went up and down the length of old industrial revolution factories.

The earliest desks had these sections split up in their layout, generally thus:

new diag 2

Diag 2. The ‘Split’ format mixer.  Easy to understand, but quite wasteful of space.

wiz2082

And here’s one we made earlier.  A rare example of a compact split format console the Allen & Heath Mix wizard 20-8-2 – clearly showing the separate sections for inputs, outputs, tape monitors etc, although the group faders have been omitted to save space. (photo courtesy http://www.allen-heath.com)

mta980

Big enough to sleep on!  Split consoles are so space-hungry that this type of design was generally used in large studio consoles, like the MTA980 here, although even here the in-line design is now king. (Photo courtesy www.toftaudiodesigns.com)

Not Fade Away.

We admitted earlier that performers may need to listen to a mix so different from that which the engineer has that a separate set of mix faders needs to be provided.  These produce a mix totally separate from that made by the engineer, the source of these signals is before the engineers’ faders and unaffected by their movement – this ‘Auxilliary’ mix is therefore before or ‘Pre’ Fader.

new diag 3

Diag 3. Pre-Fade.  The same mixer input channel with a pre-fader Auxiliary (usually on a knob, not a fader) for creating headphone monitor mixes. 

Great Aux

Another use for an auxiliary send would be to feed signals to a reverb or other time delay effect.  Now when we vary the level of the unaffected ‘dry’ signal with a fader, we expect the reverb for that signal to vary in proportion, so we need to pick up a feed for this sort of auxiliary send after (‘post’) the fader.

new diag 4

Diag 4. Post-Fade.  It’s that mixer again, with a post-fader Auxiliary option for feeding a fader-related signal to reverb and other associated effects.  On most desks today, some Aux’s are pre, some are post, and some can be switched either way…

Esoteric Insertions

Now auxiliaries are fine for ‘effects’ (i.e. things that take the original signal, mess with it and then are added to the mix via another mixer channel).  But what about signal processing that affects the whole signal?  Like a gate, or a compressor, or an external EQ?  Now here we need a mechanism by which we can effectively ‘insert’ an external processing box into the signal chain, by way of, unsurprisingly, an ‘insert point’.

new diag 5

Diag 5. Insert point.  Now we have a way to drop an external processor into the signal path, replacing the original signal with the processed version.  The insert is provided by either a pair of, or single, stereo, jack – specially wired to break the path when something is plugged in.  With nothing plugged, the signal passes uninterrupted.  Some big mixers offer insert points both pre and post EQ.  We have shown the most common position in an analogue desk – post.  It must be noted that in all digital desks, the analogue insert is before the A-D converters, and thus is pre-EQ.

The Levellers.

Lets pay a bit more attention to the input stage now.  As most of you probably know, the first choice facing you when plugging a signal into a mixer is: ‘mic’ or ‘line’?  The mixer will only work it’s best with a signal lying between quite distinct level (voltage) limits (see ‘Tech Terms’), so it’s the job of the input stage to boost or cut the input signal to match what the desk likes.  Most ‘line’ level signals (synths, outboard, recorders etc) have outputs pretty close to line, and only need a modicum of adjustment to meet with the mixers approval – these use the ‘line’ input setting to provide a small amount of trim.  Microphones on the other hand, have signal outputs a couple of powers of ten below line, and so need these tiny signals boosting heavily, and a separate specialist amp section is employed to achieve this high gain result.  At this stage you will probably also encounter a ‘Pad’ which will shift the gain window of either of these two input stages down by 20 dB (to avoid distortion with louder signals), and a phase reverse switch (more of which another time I’m sure!) which (briefly) makes sure that in multi-mic set-ups the mic signal waveforms are rising and falling in unison and not cancelling each other out.  Last but not least is the switch for microphone 48volt phantom power for condenser mics.

input stage

A typical mic input stage.  Showing all the controls mentioned above.

The Great God Pan

In all these illustrations we’ve been looking at mono signals for simplicity.  All you need to do to create a stereo mix buss is to have 2 busses; L & R and a pan pot to fade the signal between them.  A pan pot (that’s a potentiometer to you)  is basically 2 rotary faders ganged together, except one works backwards so that as one gets turned down, the other gets turned up.  In the middle they feed equal amounts to both L & R.

Do the Splits?

Thus far we’ve also just been looking at split format mixers – but they have a big disadvantage – size.  What if we incorporated input channel 1, group out 1, & monitor 1 all onto the same strip of metal?  This is called an ‘in-line’ mixer, and virtually all recording mixers now follow this format.  This makes the mixer around half the width and thus cheaper – and easier to work with too, once you have got your head round the fact that all the controls on each channel strip actually aren’t affecting the same signal path!  It also allows, for example, auxes and eq’s to be physically switched between the channel strips input and monitor signal paths, thus making the mixer more flexible and reducing the number of actual knobs on the desk.

924

An’ In-Line desk’  The MTA 924 inline console featuring 24 fully specified channels and monitors –  all in an amazingly compact frame.  (Photo courtesy www.toftaudiodesigns.com)

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An In-Line channel-strip  The Soundtracs Solitaire in-line input channel in detail, showing all the different sections we have talked about combined in an in-line channel – note that a group output trim control is missing – a common omission in in-line designs. (Picture courtesy http://www.soundtracs.com)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Telephone Exchange

As a mixer is essentially an overgrown set of switches, it is not surprising that in order to give the routing of signals maximum flexibility it incorporates a patch bay.  This large array of identical jacks is effectively the sockets on the back of every single item of gear in the studio brought up into one place where experimentation with routing can be achieved without any crawling around the back of things.  It also creates a stable grounding environment regardless of how the gear is actually plugged up.  Without it, experimentation is awkward and the consequent unstable earthing of the studio is just inviting interference and noise.

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A patchbay beside a TL Audio VTC at Bath Spa University.

Digital Mixers

Whilst we have been talking about analogue mixers so far, pretty much all of what has been said applies to digital consoles too.  Why?  Well because so far all digital consoles have been designed to model the internal architecture of the analogue desks that preceded them.  This made good sense, as engineers didn’t have to learn a new architecture.  Indeed once you have got your head round analogue console architecture, the inner workings of your 02r or whatever seem an awful lot less complicated, and the way that you can program changes to the internal architecture of digital desks reveals their true power.

Of course, digital desks ape analogue ones ‘so far’.  Because it can only be a matter of time before someone with no previous analogue desk knowledge gets to design a digital desk whose architecture is driven only by the designers’ own creative experience.  The first of this breed may be poorly received, if only because our previous experience of traditional desks is no longer applicable and indeed hinders our ability to work on such consoles, but to some, these new desks may well be the key to unlocking their creativity.  We await developments…

Conclusion

Every desk will have it’s own quirks in the nature of it’s function, so this article is not intended to be a short-form manual for your desk.  What it is, however, is an introduction to the underlying signal structure that exists in any mixer design, be it analogue, digital, or even virtual in your PC!  Once you can sit there with your eyes closed and visualise every wire and connection, then the gear will never get in the way of your creativity ever again.

Some light reading:

Sound Recording Practice – Fourth Edition, J Borwick Ed., APRS/Oxford University Press 1994. ISBN 0-19-816381-9

Modern Recording Techniques, D M Huber & R E Runstein, Focal Press ISBN0-240-80308-6

Sound Engineers Pocket Book, M. Talbot-Smith, Focal Press. ISBN 0-240-51612-5

 

Tech Terms

Line Level – When the meters on a desk read 0 (or as we call it 0Vu – that’s ‘volume units’ by the way) then you can be pretty sure that the voltage on the line will be at one of two standard voltages.

+4dBm: The old pro standard that most gear with jacks and xlr’s uses is what we call +4dBm; there’s a long winded historical reason why we ended up with this standard that we won’t go into here – suffice to say that on this scale 0Vu = approx 1.25volts RMS (ie 4dB more than 0dBm which is .775vRMS)

-10dBv:  A semi pro standard you find generally in things that have phono (RCA) plugs on them like hi-fi etc.  This is based on dBv standard where 0dBv=1vRMS, but in this case when the meters on the gear read 0vu, the actual signal level is tiny; 0Vu= approx 0.3vRMS, (ie 10dB less than 0dBv)

The –10 standard has been designed to allow cheap low voltage power supplies and even 9v battery power to be used in the equipment (if you think about it, it’s obvious that the signal peak-to-peak voltage has to be less than the power supply voltage, so low psu voltages can only sustain low voltage signals without distortion).  The payoff in this case is that the signal level is some 12dB lower than in +4 pro gear (so they have difficulty communicating with each other without generating either noise or distortion) the noise floor on –10 stuff  is 12dB poorer in theory (and probably even worse in practice) than the pro stuff.  Try not to mix the two in your studio – it’ll always cause trouble somewhere ‘down the line’…

Effects – Reverb, Echo, Delay, Harmoniser etc – generally all ‘time delay’ derived effects.  These take the signal, mess with it and then you add a little of this into the mix to augment the original ‘dry’ signal.  These will be fed from a post fader Auxiliary and returned down a separate channel input or effects return (which is just a crude input with less options than the main ones).

Processors – Compressors, Gates, Eq’s etc.  These affect the whole signal i.e. the processed signal replaces the original.  These are put into the signal chain via an Insert point.

About the author

Howard Turner has over 30 years experience in the studio business, and for the last two decades his Studio Wizard Organisation has allowed him to stop shouting at musicians and going to sleep on the mixing desk all of the time, instead he gets to design studios and shout at builders for a change…  Further information:  07092 123666 web: www.studiowizard.com

Criteria for the design of isolated studio rooms. A layman’s guide.

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ISOLATION

The studio rooms should be sufficiently acoustically isolated from each other and the surrounding non-studio spaces that use of one space is not compromised by noise emitting from another.  In the building of suitable rooms, isolation is on a sliding scale dependent on the techniques employed, however there is a sizeable jump in the level of isolation available (especially at lower frequencies) when room-in-room construction techniques are used which drastically cut structure-borne noise transmission.  As a result the method of creating such isolation structures is not one that lends itself to cost-cutting.

OA aerial

INTERNAL ACOUSTICS

Having trapped all sound within each of the recording rooms, such sound (which in normal rooms escapes from windows, doors, ceilings etc.), rattles around the room, producing a cacophony of reverberation, rendering the room useless for any acoustic purpose.  As a result, acoustic trapping must be applied to bring the internal ‘sound’ of the room back to ‘normal’ i.e. the reverb times across the frequency spectrum must be adjusted to a figure generally considered acceptable for the purpose for which the room is to be used.

The internal acoustics of control rooms will further be refined to produce an exceptional stereo imaging from the monitor speakers, allowing the engineer to hear the results of his/her endeavours as free as possible from room artefacts.  This is taken a stage further in 5.1 ‘surround’ rooms, where surround sound imaging must be stable from all directions, not just the front of the room, and where there has to be an allowance for the presence of (at various times) unused surround speakers acting as unwanted tuned absorbers.

Typically, Control rooms will have a ‘flat’ frequency response, with a reverb time consistent across the frequency range that is slightly shorter than the typical domestic environment.  In contrast, recording spaces will vary depending on the purpose for which they are to be used.  Indeed the recording engineer uses the ‘sound’ of spaces as part of the palette of sound ‘colours’ with which he/she ‘paints’ a recording.  The net result of this is that a good studio usually contains a range of different sounding acoustic spaces from which the engineer can choose.  These will range from near anechoic (vocals, acoustic guitar), to heavily reverberant (drums, choirs, and again – acoustic guitar!).

WORK SPACE

The isolation shells will reduce the internal size of the rooms, so special attention has to be paid to the ergonomics of the rooms and the utilisation of space so as to maximise the working area.  This is best served by careful design of the space allied with furniture designed to fit the room rather than off-the-shelf free-standing furniture.

INTERNAL NOISE

The listening environment must be essentially quiet so that monitor speaker levels do not have to be turned up high in order to listen ‘over’ the background noise (Such practices result in listener fatigue and shorter critical attention spans when mixing).

In a recording room, where microphones are used, the problem is even more critical.

As a result, unwanted noise sources within the room (e.g. Computers, a/c etc) must either be removed or neutralised (acoustic cabinets etc.).

VENTILATION

An isolated room is by it’s very nature totally airtight, fresh air ventilation is a must as the oxygen / CO2 balance in the rooms will otherwise soon change, leading to headaches, reduced attention span and worse…..

Also, isolated rooms are heavily heat-insulated, as the Rockwool used for sound trapping is similar to that used to heat-insulate houses.  This – combined with the not insignificant amount of heat generated by the audio equipment means that air-conditioning is an essential.  Indeed, even in cold climates such as the UK, most studio a/c systems are cooling (rather than heating) their spaces even in mid winter.

The background noise criteria mentioned above, mean that un-silenced ventilation, normal ducted, or on-the-wall ‘cassette’ a/c systems, are completely unsuitable for studio use.  The correct way to ventilate and condition is to use an inherently quiet ducted split a/c unit, which introduces a percentage of fresh air in each cycle.  This must then be passed through critically mounted custom silencers (commercial silencers are not up to the job).  These silencers stop ingress and egress of external and a/c noise, and also allow more than one room to be fed by the unit without excessively compromising the isolation.

BUILDING REGULATIONS

Whilst there are no specific regulations for commercial audio facilities, the new BB93 for acoustics in schools came into force in July 2003, and, whilst (as far as I am aware) this is only applicable if studios have regular use teaching children of school age, the criteria contained therein form a suitable base specification to which all studio projects should aspire as a bare minimum specification for a workable facility.

Many of the educational facilities for which we design studios are not, in fact, schools as defined in the Building Regulations.  Universities, Colleges of Further Education and some sixth-form colleges do not have to comply with BB93.   But by publishing, for the first time, definitive standards for studios in schools, the DfES has set a standard, which even those institutions should consider.  Anyone designing a studio for a College or University to a lesser standard than that required for a school should, at the very least, be able to give a good reason for this.  Ignorance of the criteria in BB93 will probably not be considered a valid excuse if at a later date it is found that the studios fall within the remit of the regulations.

The Author

Howard Turner has over 30 years experience in the studio business, and for the last 2 decades, his Studio Wizard Organisation have been at the forefront of the development of effective & affordable designs and solutions for studios.  Further information:  +44 7803 666789 web: www.studiowizard.com

Regulation of Sound – Studios in Schools

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When is a recording studio not a recording studio?  When it’s a bog-standard classroom with some gear in!  Howard Turner from Studio Wizard looks at what it takes to make a proper educational audio facility, and how recent regulations should have spelt the end for shoddy school studios.

If your PE teacher was given a swimming pool full of mud, and told that this was the ‘new purpose built facility for gymnastics’, you’d probably forgive that colleague for getting more than a little upset!  However at the commencement of each term, we get calls from schools and colleges where equally inappropriate spaces have been foisted on Music Departments claiming to be ‘Recording Studios’.  We know it’s wrong, you know it’s wrong, and now the government have given us the means to do something about it!

Since July 2003, new approved Document E of Building Regulations came into force.  Since then, all new school facilities must meet strict standards for noise levels, sound insulation and room acoustics.  These standards are set out in DfES Building Bulletin 93 “Acoustic Design of Schools” and cover all areas of schools, including music & drama facilities, and in great detail, recording studios & control rooms.  If your school is planning a recording facility, you need to know about this, as a non-compliant facility could be forced to close!

Adrian James, one of the handful of specialist acousticians who contributed to the contents of BB93 describes it thus:  “BB93 is a unique document which has to fulfil the roles both of a regulatory document and of a design guide.”  “It contains a wealth of data, advice and examples covering all aspects of acoustics in schools” he adds, but stresses that the regulations are far from a textbook on studio design and that “specialised facilities such as studios really require input from an experienced consultant.”

A typical commercial ‘home studio’ facility.

Colours of Sound

So, what is so important about studio acoustics?  Well, every sound we hear is coloured by the environment in which we hear it.  We all know that for an art space to work (be it painters’ studio or gallery) the lighting has to be balanced and neutral so that the eye can perceive the subject and/or picture.

By the same token, the sonic qualities of a studio control room must be understandable and neutral.  Our aim is simply to create a room whose characteristic sound we understand almost instinctively.  Hardly surprisingly, it appears that the sort of room we understand is one whose sound characteristics closely ape those of an idealised domestic sitting room.  Add to this a need to exclude distracting background noises and stop our endeavours affecting the occupants of adjacent rooms and we have described the basic criteria; Room Acoustics and Isolation.  These two issues are not one and the same.  In fact one makes the other worse.  Once you’ve ‘Isolated’ and trapped all the sound inside a room; it’s going to rattle around in there and sound awful unless you do something about the ‘Room Acoustics’.  After all, if we cannot understand what is coming out of those speakers, how can we hope to balance the instruments and vocals in a mix, with the room forcing some to the fore, and masking others?  Similarly, how can we demonstrate manipulation of sound when each listener in the room is hearing something different?

So, control rooms have to have a standardised acoustic in terms of reverberation & background noise (from outside and from ventilation), and out of respect for our neighbours we have to keep our sonic excesses in.  Live recording spaces might by contrast benefit from a variety of acoustics ‘colours’, however the issue of control of noise ingress and egress is even more to the fore.

A virtual overview of an educational facility.  One room stereo, the other 5.1 surround.

A Bluffers Guide to Studio Building.

So, your institution has a grand plan to provide a studio facility – the pictures will look great on the prospectus. But how can you be sure that they have recruited the right team to design and build it?

Well almost without exception, if the design/build team chosen are a local architect and conventional builder, they will not have the skills to create a workable facility – large parts of their training teach them ‘unbreakable golden rules’ which must be broken in order to create a studio.  If they have not got a studio acoustic consultant on board supervising (not any old noise consultant, but a bona fide studio specialist) then certainly the project is doomed.

If you are offered a pre-fab for your studio complex, it will be incapable of providing compliant studio isolation and noise control unless conventional studio techniques are used inside, with the pre-fab just keeping the rain out.

Tender Trap

Building tender processes, common on school projects, are based around setting up an adversarial relationship between designer and builder, whereas in the studio world, each designer has pet ‘teams’; who understand his/her designs and will build them appropriately, cooperating closely with the designer at all stages.  Competently defined tender documentation is essential if the process is not to end in tears!

Warning Signs

Common misconceptions abound in the architecture & building world, ranging from the; ‘oh you’ll need a lot of egg boxes then’ (no we won’t!), to the horrifyingly common belief that there are magic forms of plasterboard or soft foam that stop all sound passing when you stick them to the walls.  Sadly, these mythical treatment items are quite commonly brought into conversation by otherwise sane and competent professionals.  Part of the problem is that a lot of common building materials have published noise reduction figures that seem quite high, but beware – these published figures are measured only at the frequencies of human speech.  Shout at a bit of plasterboard and hardly anything will get through it, fire a big bass drum at it and it’ll go through like the board isn’t there…

A surround sound teaching control room NSAD Norwich.

How to Spot a Lemon:

The architect has done some impressive pictures, but is that a super studio or sad shambles on the table before you?  Some questions to answer:

Are there drawings of isolated ‘rooms within room’ designs?

Are the walls, floors & ceilings at an angle to each other, i.e. non-parallel?

Has the designer drawn in the orientation of the equipment (especially the monitor speakers)?

Is the end of the room with the speakers in it symmetrically laid out?

Are there only soft surfaces on the walls beside the speakers?

Are there indications of acoustic treatments on all surfaces, including ‘bass traps’?

Are there reverb times specified across different frequency bands (there may be 6+ separate figures) in the finished room?

Are there background noise figures specified for the finished studio rooms and the adjacent non-studio spaces?

Is there evidence that the air conditioning system (there must be one to be legal) has silencers to control ventilation noise and also leakage between studio spaces?

Are there double sound lock doors into the studios (i.e. where you enter one door & close it before opening the second)?

If the answer is ‘no’ to any of these questions then you need to proceed with extreme caution!  Don’t be afraid to ask an independent consultant to vet the designs and offer comments.   And if the building is already under construction, don’t rely on council Building Control to test the rooms for you – they may be unaware of the requirement, and reluctant to hire in the necessary skills.

In the recent years we in the studio build industry have seen tens of millions of pounds of public money wasted on ill-thought-through school studio projects, when just the same amount of money could have delivered excellent facilities.  These cases range from a normally built classroom with a plaque saying ‘Studio’ on the door, to purpose built multi-million pound new structures where every acoustic rule has been broken, and where remedial work is all but impossible owing to fundamental design errors.

Typical Small Studio Layout showing offset walls, & a symmetrical monitoring environment.

And In Summary.

As long ago as 1975 the need for appropriate acoustics in schools was recognised in law.  BB93 takes that further by defining minimum standards, and stating that:

Each room and other space in a school building shall be designed and constructed in such a way that they have the acoustic conditions and the insulation against disturbance by noise appropriate to its normal use”.

“BB93 sets minimum criteria for compliance with Building Regulations so it is not surprising that these are not particularly demanding requirements by the standards of professional studio design.” says Adrian James, adding that although BB93 “is a bit short on detailed guidance on studio design.  There are a few rather old-fashioned examples in the chapter on design of music rooms, and a useful case study in the appendices.”

The most important advice is there in BB93 too: use a specialist, and get them involved as early as possible.

A final word fromAdrian:  “No designer has yet been taken to court for failing to meet these standards.”  But as spend on school studio facilities rises, it can only be a matter of time….

More Information

Books:

Master Handbook of Acoustics, F. Alton Everest, McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-136097-2

BB93 is available on paper as ISBN 0 11 271105 7 from the Stationery Office (www.tso.co.uk).

Or can be downloaded free of charge from the DfES website www.teachernet.gov.uk/acoustics.

Contacts:

Adrian James Acoustics Ltd. www.adrianjamesacoustics.co.uk

The Studio Wizard Organisation. www.studiowizard.com

The Author

Howard Turner has over 30 years experience in the studio business, and for the last 2 decades, his Studio Wizard Organisation have been at the forefront of the development of effective & affordable designs and solutions for studios.  Further information:  07092 123666 web: www.studiowizard.com